UMR Index



Score: 36.1%

Sustainable Mobility


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Score: 29.9%

Public Transit


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Score: 43.5%

Population 21.3 million
Surface area (km2) 976
Population-density (people/km2) 21,820
GDP per capita ($) 6,721
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What Mumbai Does Well in Urban Mobility

India’s commercial capital has an interconnected network of roadways that are known for having very few traffic fatalities. A 29-kilometer (18-mile) coastal expressway linking the business district of South Mumbai with the western suburb of Kindivali is reportedly due to be completed in 2024 and aims to reduce congestion and travel times.

Mumbai also has been investing in a modern metro system to ease congestion. A new automated underground line is expected to open in 2024; the entire project, with 14 lines spanning 300 kilometers (186 miles), is reportedly coming later this decade.

Urban Mobility Readiness Index, Sustainable Mobility and Public Transit scores

Challenges and Opportunities for Mumbai’s Transportation System

One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Mumbai struggles with poor air quality and large amounts of light and noise pollution. “ Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) reportedly issued new guidelines to limit dust and air pollution, but additional efforts will be needed.

While its elective vehicle (EV) sales have grown in recent years, overall numbers are low. Charging stations are relatively scarce, reflecting limited government investment in incentives and charging infrastructure.

Dimensions of the Urban Mobility Readiness Index score

How Mumbai Can Improve Its Public Transportation and Sustainable Mobility

In addition to completing the city’s metro, Mumbai can improve the attractiveness of its public transit system by extending operating hours. The network operates an average of 16 hours a day, considerably less than the 21 hours that Sydney operates its system. Increasing hours would require investments in more trains, additional drivers, and an increased police and security presence on trains and platforms during nighttime hours.

With high fares relative to household income, Mumbai has one of the least affordable public transit systems in the region. To help close this gap with other Asia-Pacific cities, Mumbai can provide subsidies for transit fares. This can be accomplished by lowering fares for everyone, reducing them on an income basis, or selling discounted long-term passes (monthly or quarterly, for example) for heavy transit users.

Comparative Urban Mobility Readiness Index scores