UMR Index


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Score: 52.2%

Sustainable Mobility


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Score: 46.8%

Public Transit


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Score: 59.9%

Population 15.0 million
Surface area (km2) 2,562
Population-density (people/km2) 5,857
GDP per capita ($) 30,513
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What Moscow Does Well in Urban Mobility

Moscow has a diverse, multimodal public transit network with high ridership levels driven by its affordable fares and quick commutes. In 2023, Moscow reportedly completed a 70-kilometer (43 miles) metro line that links 31 stations. The project cost an estimated $6.6 billion and is one of the largest Russian infrastructure projects in decades, according to reports.

Despite its considerable size and population, Moscow has high air quality levels that have been improving since 2010. To improve air quality even further, the city government has supported implementing low-emission zones.

Urban Mobility Readiness Index, Sustainable Mobility and Public Transit scores

Challenges and Opportunities for Moscow’s Transportation System

International geopolitical events, such as the war in Ukraine, have had a significant impact on the number of international connecting flights.

The city's supply chain infrastructure and services also have weakened since the conflict began. More than 1,000 companies have curtailed operations in Russia since the war began, according to some estimates.

Dimensions of the Urban Mobility Readiness Index score

How Moscow Can Improve Its Public Transportation and Sustainable Mobility

While the city has become a leader in electrified transit with one of the largest electric bus fleets in Europe, Moscow still lags in consumer electric vehicle (EV) sales with a market share 24 times smaller than its European peers. The city can increase its existing incentives for EVs, such as registration tax exemptions, larger purchase subsidies, or special access lanes. Station availability is another major factor in EV purchase decisions, and Moscow's charging station density is well below its peers. To improve its charging network to the level of its European peers, the city would need to accelerate the deployment of charging stations to multiply its charging station density by a factor of 37.

While Moscow has a strong public transit offering, its large surface area and low station density challenges residents who are outside of the city center. To improve station density and encourage ridership, the city could add routes and stops for buses and trams to help connect residents with metro stations — a cost-effective improvement that would help lower walking distances and overall commute times. In the long run, adding new or extending existing metro and rail lines will be key to building out the city's public transit offering for residents, but that effort will be a time-intensive and expensive undertaking.

Comparative Urban Mobility Readiness Index scores