UMR Index



Score: 39.1%

Sustainable Mobility



Score: 30.9%

Public Transit


Arrow up

Score: 48.6%

Population 22.5 million
Surface area (km2) 3,546
Population-density (people/km2) 6,346
GDP per capita ($) 22,520
Select Filter

What Jakarta Does Well in Urban Mobility

The public transit system offers diverse modes, extended operating hours, affordable pricing, and an integrated payment program for a range of modes, including bus rapid transit (BRT), metro, light rail, and commuter rail.

The city has relatively low road fatality rates, in part due to stern enforcement of traffic laws. Jakarta’s odd-even policy – which restricts private car access to certain roads during busy hours – also helps limit congestion and promotes road safety.

Urban Mobility Readiness Index, Sustainable Mobility and Public Transit scores

Challenges and Opportunities for Jakarta’s Transportation System

Jakarta's mobility infrastructure limits the available options for some residents. Low station density on public transit networks is a challenge for transit ridership while a shortage of car-free zones and dedicated bike lanes constrain active mobility efforts.

Government investments in innovative mobility initiatives, such as mobility sharing, electric vehicle charging stations, and connected and automated technologies, are lacking compared with many of Jakarta's peers.

Dimensions of the Urban Mobility Readiness Index score

How Jakarta Can Improve Its Public Transportation and Sustainable Mobility

To help increase the pedestrian modal split, Jakarta can increase the number of car-free zones to encourage pedestrian travel without fear of road incidents. In 2019, the city converted a highway underpass into a pedestrian only tunnel that links six different modes of public transportation at one of Jakarta’s busiest multimodal hubs, increasing safety and accessibility for pedestrians. In addition, authorities can promote the 15-minute city approach, where daily necessities are available within a 15-minute walk, cycle, or public transit ride, by introducing regularly used services to underserved parts of the city.

Jakarta can bolster its public transit offering by introducing more stops and stations along its commuting lines. Focusing development on its bus rapid transit (BRT) service, Transjakarta, would be a resource-efficient option in the near term. Increasing the number of stations can make bus service more accessible to residents, helping to increase ridership and lower car usage. In the long run, extending the reach of the mass rapid transit network, MRT Jakarta, will be key to building out the city’s public transit offering, but that will be a time intensive and expensive undertaking.

Comparative Urban Mobility Readiness Index scores