UMR Index



Score: 68.4%

Sustainable Mobility



Score: 72.8%

Public Transit



Score: 73.1%

Population 1.5 million
Surface area (km2) 565
Population-density (people/km2) 2,681
GDP per capita ($) 67,744
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What Copenhagen Does Well in Urban Mobility

A new addition to the Index in 2023, Copenhagen is a bright spot for sustainable mobility. It boasts dedicated car-free zones and cycling infrastructure that have enabled residents to opt for bikes in place of cars. In 2022, Copenhagen opened five additional “Cycle Superhighways” – roads that allow commuters to cycle across municipal borders – that collectively span 25 kilometers (15 miles). Enabling active mobility has helped reduce light and noise pollution and improve air quality.

The city also boasts one of the world's strongest multimodal public transit systems, known for affordable fares and ample operating hours. These elements land Copenhagen in the top five of the sustainability and public transit sub-indices. A new light rail system that serves the greater metro area, in which trains will run every five minutes in each direction during the daytime, will open in 2025.

Urban Mobility Readiness Index, Sustainable Mobility and Public Transit scores

Challenges and Opportunities for Copenhagen’s Transportation System

Unlike many of its European counterparts, Copenhagen is not a world leader in innovation, with few government investments in connected and automated vehicles (CAV) technologies. As a result, there has been limited roll out of autonomous cars and public transit. Copenhagen held a seven-month pilot program of an autonomous minibus in 2020 and 2021 as part of a European Union-funded project but has yet to implement more pilots or test programs in the years since.

Despite being home to one of the top public transit systems in the world, the city struggles with low ridership because commuters often have long walks between stations. However, five new metro stations are opening in 2024 that will better connect the southern part of Copenhagen to its metro system and give residents broader access to its public transit network.

Dimensions of the Urban Mobility Readiness Index score

How Copenhagen Can Improve Its Public Transportation and Sustainable Mobility

Copenhagen's public transit system is underutilized with commuters often opting for different transportation options. Copenhagen can increase its transit offerings by increasing the station density, incentivizing further transit fares, or facilitating connectivity with other modes of transport such as cycling. Adding bike-friendly policies to public transit – like removing time restrictions for bikes on the metro and removing bike fares – can boost ridership.

To help increase the pedestrian modal split, Copenhagen can make its streets more walkable by increasing the number of car-free zones. In addition, the city could promote the 15-minute city concept — where key necessities like work, healthcare, and education are available within a 15-minute walk, cycle, or public transit ride from anywhere in the city — by introducing these services to previously underserved parts of the city.

Comparative Urban Mobility Readiness Index scores